Questions are related to the passage given below :
Let us take a look at the pressures building up. To start off, there is the long term rise in the cost of energy. Every time the cost of transportation goes up, employers are compelled to increase wages accordingly. They may resist for a time, but if they want their workers to show up, they eventually have to provide a transportation subsidy. It is built right into the wage structure.
Next, the entire system of commuting implies hidden costs. Companies that bring employees to a central location wind up paying more for real estate; they pay higher taxes, maintenance costs and salaries. They often have to provide cafeterias, locker rooms, and in suburban locations, parking facilities – there is a whole infrastructure that supports the commuting process. All of these costs have been skyrocketing.
By contrast, as we all lalow, the cost of telecommunications and computing and video equipment, and other tools for “teleconunuting” are plummeting. So you have two powerful economic curves about to intersect. But even more importantly, we all worry about productivity. Without doubt, the single most anti productive thing that we do is to shift millions of people back and forth across the landscape everyday. A waste of time, of human creativity, of millions of barrels of non-renewable fuel, a cause of pollution, crowding and god knows what else.
We worry about the human effects of home-work. But how human is commuting itself? For most workers commuting is the unpaid part of the job, being isolated for hours at a time. Commuting was important when most workers had to handle physical goods in factories. Today, as the Third Wave industries expand, many workers travel to work to handle information, ideas, numbers, programs, formulas, designs and symbols and it is a lot cheaper to move the information to the workers than the workers to the information.
There are all kinds of parallel cultural and value shifts as well that support the idea. The new emphasis on revived family life. The decentralist push – nothing is more decentralized than working at home. The resistance to forced mobility – you do not have to move your family when you change your job. Environmental conceal- nothing pollutes more than centralized production.
Add all these pressures together, and you understand why this transfer of certain jobs into the home seems so likely. Moreover, you have to see this development not by itself, but as linked to the demassification of production and distribution; decentralization towards the regions: rising importance of information; the appearance of wholly new, unprecedented industries; the breakdown of national tools for economic regulation or management, and the rising importance of co-production and non-market production.
We are restructuring the economy on all these fronts at once. No wonder our economic vocabulary is outdated. No wonder our economic maps no longer reflect the terrain. A new Third Wave economy is taking shape.
As per the passage, which of the following is NOT a reason for working from home?